Linux Mint Distribution Comparison to Ubuntu and Debian

My favourite Linux Distribution is Linux Mint and every so often you need to add a custom deb resource and the only ones out there is for Ubuntu or debian.

The latest Mint code names can be found at:

https://linuxmint.com/download_all.php

18.3 Sylvia Ubuntu Xenial Long term support release (LTS), supported until April 2021.
18.2 Sonya Ubuntu Xenial Long term support release (LTS), supported until April 2021.
18.1 Serena Ubuntu Xenial Long term support release (LTS), supported until April 2021.
18 Sarah Ubuntu Xenial Long term support release (LTS), supported until April 2021.
17.3 Rosa Ubuntu Trusty Long term support release (LTS), supported until April 2019.
17.2 Rafaela Ubuntu Trusty Long term support release (LTS), supported until April 2019.
17.1 Rebecca Ubuntu Trusty Long term support release (LTS), supported until April 2019.
17 Qiana Ubuntu Trusty Long term support release (LTS), supported until April 2019.
2 Betsy Debian Jessie Long term support release (LTS).

To help here is a list of distribution names from Ubuntu.

https://wiki.ubuntu.com/Releases

Ubuntu 17.10 Artful Aardvark Rel October 19, 2017 July 2018
 

Ubuntu 16.04.4 LTS

Xenial Xerus Changes <p “>March 1, 2018 April 2021
Ubuntu 16.04.3 LTS Xenial Xerus Changes August 3, 2017 April 2021
Ubuntu 16.04.2 LTS Xenial Xerus Changes February 16, 2017 April 2021
Ubuntu 16.04.1 LTS <p “>Xenial Xerus

Changes

July 21, 2016

April 2021

 

Ubuntu 16.04 LTS

Xenial Xerus

Rel

April 21, 2016

April 2021

 

Ubuntu 14.04.5 LTS

Trusty Tahr

Changes

August 4, 2016

April 2019

 

Ubuntu 14.04.4 LTS

Trusty Tahr

Changes

February 18, 2016

HWE August 2016

 

Ubuntu 14.04.3 LTS

Trusty Tahr

Changes

August 6, 2015

HWE August 2016

 

Ubuntu 14.04.2 LTS

Trusty Tahr

Changes

February 20, 2015

HWE August 2016

 

Ubuntu 14.04.1 LTS

Trusty Tahr

Changes

July 24, 2014

April 2019

 

Ubuntu 14.04 LTS

Trusty Tahr

Rel

April 17, 2014

April 2019

Debian can be found in a file called

cat /etc/debian_version

18.04  bionic     buster  / sid
17.10  artful     stretch / sid
17.04  zesty      stretch / sid
16.10  yakkety    stretch / sid
16.04  xenial     stretch / sid
15.10  wily       jessie  / sid
15.04  vivid      jessie  / sid
14.10  utopic     jessie  / sid
14.04  trusty     jessie  / sid
13.10  saucy      wheezy  / sid
13.04  raring     wheezy  / sid
12.10  quantal    wheezy  / sid
12.04  precise    wheezy  / sid
11.10  oneiric    wheezy  / sid
11.04  natty      squeeze / sid
10.10  maverick   squeeze / sid
10.04  lucid      squeeze / sid

 

 

PHP 7.0 Apache Oracle 12 Instantclient OCI8 install apt-get

If you need to do this from scratch I have followed these how-to-install-and-configure-php-70-or-php-71-on-ubuntu-16-04 insructions to install PHP7.0 and apache.

Once installed then
Follow these instructions to compile oci8 extentions Oracle tech note OCI8

Download the instant client from oracle’s web site here : Oracle instant client download
I downloaded the .ZIP files since I dont have RPM installed.
I then extracted it to ~/Downloads/instantclient_12_2
NOTE: Download the instantclient-basic-linux.x64-12.2.0.1.0.zip and instantclient-sdk-linux.x64-12.2.0.1.0.zip

cd ~Downloads
unzip instantclient-basic-linux.x64-12.2.0.1.0.zip
unzip instantclient-sdk-linux.x64-12.2.0.1.0.zip

Now we need to create the paths

sudo mkdir /usr/lib/oracle
sudo mkdir /usr/lib/oracle/12.2
sudo mkdir /usr/lib/oracle/12.2/client64
sudo mkdir /usr/lib/oracle/12.2/client64/lib
cd ~/Downloads/instantclient_12_2
sudo cp * /usr/lib/oracle/12.2/client64/lib/
cd /usr/lib/oracle/12.2/client64/lib/
ln -s libclntsh.so.12.1 libclntsh.so
sudo mkdir /usr/include/oracle
sudo mkdir /usr/include/oracle/12.2
sudo mkdir /usr/include/oracle/12.2/client64
cd ~/Downloads/instantclient_12_2/sdk/include
sudo cp * /usr/include/oracle/12.2/client64
export ORACLE_HOME=/usr/lib/oracle/12.2

Edit ld.so.conf and include oracle libs. Add a file called oracle.conf under /etc/ld.so.conf.d

cd /etc/ld.so.conf.d
sudo vi oracle.conf
PRESS ESC i
/usr/lib/oracle/12.2/client64/lib
PRESS ESC :wq

Now to download and compile OCI8

sudo pecl install oci8 --with-oci8=instantclient,/usr/lib/oracle/12.2/client64/lib

On My machine it compiled it under ‘/usr/lib/php/20151012/oci8.so’ but look at the last few lines it should echo it.

First lets install a page to test that the configuration works.

sudo vi /var/www/html/t.php ( or xed /var/www/html/t.php if you dont know vi)
Press ESC i and paste

Press ESC :qw

now open your favorite browser and go to http://localhost/t.php and you should see a information page of php

to configure php do:

cd /etc/php/7.0/mods-available
vi oci8.ini

Edit oci8.ini with content

extension=oci8.so

Now restart

sudo service apache2 restart

My Installation now gave an error

apachectl configtest
if you get an error about libaio.so.1: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

sudo apt-get install libaio1 libaio-dev

Now we need to give the path to the libraries.
Edit /etc/apache2/envvars and add the flowing to the bottom of the file

ORACLE_HOME=/usr/lib/oracle/12.2/client64
LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/lib/oracle/12.2/client64/lib
LD_LIBRARY_PATH64=/usr/lib/oracle/12.2/client64/lib/
#TNS_ADMIN=$ORACLE_HOME/network/admin
#NLS_LANG=AMERICAN_AMERICA.WE8MSWIN1252
#ORACLE_SID=your_db

To Test

php --ri oci8

PHP Active Directory Authentication using Self Signed SSL Cert (LDAPS://)

Here is the steps I followed to get the domain controller’s SSL CA cert and configure PHP with LDAP to do LDAPS authentication on Active Directory (Domain Controller AD).

  • First let get the CA cert. If you dont have it, it can be done via openssl.
  • To get the CA cert

    openssl s_client -connect :636

    you will see all the values but what we are interested in is the –BEGIN CERTIFICATE — and –END CERTIFICATE—
    so save all the output to a file :

    openssl s_client -connect :636 > ca_cert.pem

    then edit it: vi ca_cert.pem (or xed ca_cert.pem) and delete everything only leaving the –BEGIN CERTIFICATE — …. –END CERTIFICATE— including the –BEGIN CERTIFICATE — and –END CERTIFICATE— tages.

    Rename the file to a more descriptive name for your CA
    mv ca_cert.pem MyCA.pem

    To make sure you have the right Domain you can always do a nslookup to verify the domain controllers.
    nslookup
    set type=ANY
    your_microsoft_domain.your_web_domain.com

  • Now to install the new CA cert on the server
  • To see where the cert dir is located do a : openssl version -d
    (Mine was /etc/openssl/certs)
    so I copy
    cp ca_cert.pem /etc/openssl/certs
    and to create the HASH

    openssl x509 -noout -hash -in ca-certificate-file

    grab the output hash (ie 23456789d)
    then do a link
    ln -s MaCA.crt 23456789d.0

  • New verify the installed certificate

  • openssl s_client -connect ANY_OF_THE_LDAP_SERVERS_GET_LIST_FROM_NSLOOKUP:636 -CAfile
    /etc/ssl/certs/MyCA.pem -verify 0

  • Now to configure the LDAP to use secure LDAPS
  • Here is the tricky part. I have found that my PHP does not pick up the changes I have made on /etc/openldap/ldap.conf .
    but start there first edit : xed /etc/openldap/ldap.conf (or vi /etc/openldap/ldap.conf if you prefer)
    add these lines:
    TLS_CACERT /etc/ssl/certs/23456789d.0

    You can always add this to ensure that you accept all certificates
    TLS_REQCERT allow

    now test and to see any errors you can do a
    sudo tail -f /var/log/apache2/error_log to see the errors

    If it does not work (Like on my UNIX box HP-UX) then on your phpinfo(); page under “Environment” look for variable HOME and lts say its
    /svr/www
    cp /etc/openldap/ldap.conf /srv/www/.ldaprc

  • Using PHP to autenticate
  • Now when its configured now you can use Active Directory Include tom Source Forge

    Virtual Box in Linux – How to use your USB Vodafone Stick

  • First we need to ensure that you USB is working on linux. In order to do this you need to go to users and groups and add yourself to the vboxusers group.
  • addUserGroup
    Then you probably need to logout and login to refresh the groups.

  • On my PC I only have USB 3.0 ports and had to give access to the VM for USB 3.0 on the VM Settings.
  • addUserGroup

  • Now for the filter go to add filters:
  • usbfilter

  • Now remove everything accept the name and verndor tag. The reason for that is that these modems switch modes and then it does not pick it up anymore.
  • It should look like this:
    usbfilter

  • Lastly you should install the USB3.0 Drivers for windows. I installed the Downloads for Intel USB 3.0 eXtensible Host Controller Driver
  • Xen Client VM to work with Oracle Virtual Box

    To convert my Xen Client VM to Oracle Virtual Box I did the following:
    UPDATE : 30 March 2017
    A more easier way is to export the VM in the normal way that will export a system.vhd file.

    Now just Extract the system.vhd to a folder on the PC. Go then to Oracle Virtual Box, select new VM
    NewVM

    Make sure you select Use Existing Virtual Hard Disk and browse to the system.vhd.

    Click on the Create VM. After that BEFORE YOU RUN IT, go to settings and ADD an IDE controller.
    After that add the system.vhd to the IDE controller and remove it from the SATA Controller.
    it should look like:
    Storage Settings VM

    Save and start the VM,it should work fine.

    I have exported my Windows 7 Xen Client VM using XenConvert XenConvert_Install2.5.exe.
    Although this is used for P2V I used it to convert my Xen Virtual Machine to Open Virtualization Format.
    Note this will ask you to specify the type and select Open Virtualization Format.

    When the process is done you will end up with YourVirtualMachineName.ova, if you try to import into Virtual Box you will get an error:

    The Appliance YourVirtualMachineName.ova could not be imported.
    Document labelled UTF-16 but has UTF-8 content.
    Location: ‘YourVirtualMachineName.ova’, line 1 (0), column 36.

    Details:
    Error code: VBOX_E_FILE_ERROR (0x80BB0004)
    Component: Appliance
    Interface: IAppliance {SOMEXXXXXNUMBER}

    Now I untarred the .ova by typing tar -xvf YourVirtualMachineName.ova on your linux console. (Maybe try 7zip if you are running windows).

    This will leave you with a YourVirtualMachineName.vhd. You can use one of the many Other Links on the internet to see how to import a VHD to virtual box. Now the problem is when you start it, it starts up and then a quick blue screen flash and it dies. Mine gave Stop error code 0x0000007B I think…

    To solve this stop the virtual machine. Go to the Storage settings. Delete the SATA Controller with the attached VHD disk. Dont delete the disk though just the connection to the SATA. Then go and create a new IDE controller. Add the Virtual Disk YourVirtualMachineName.vhd and remember to also add an CD Rom. Whola!

    Getting fetchmail to work with SSL

    Here is my steps to get fetchmail to stop complaining about SSL certificates.
    You Might get an error like :

    fetchmail: Server certificate verification error: unable to get local
    issuer certificate
    fetchmail: This means that the root signing certificate (issued for
    /C=GB/ST=Greater Manchester/L=Salford/O=COMODO CA Limited/CN=COMODO RSA
    Certification Authority) is not in the trusted CA certificate locations,
    or that c_rehash needs to be run on the certificate directory. For
    details, please see the documentation of --sslcertpath and --sslcertfile
    in the manual page.

    I run my fetchmail like :
    /usr/bin/fetchmail --ssl --sslcertck --sslcertpath=/etc/fetchmail/cert -a -K -f /etc/fetchmailrc
    You need to get the server’s certificate and the CA certificate under /etc/fetchmail/cert

    openssl s_client -connect server.yourdomain.com:993

    look for Certificate chain
    0 s:/OU=Domain Control Validated/OU=PositiveSSL/CN=server.yourdomain.com
    and copy the section —–BEGIN CERTIFICATE—–
    ….
    —–END CERTIFICATE—–
    including the —–BEGIN CERTIFICATE—– and —–END CERTIFICATE—– sections to a file.

    If you dont know how to do it what I normally do is highlight it in a terminal then in another terminal I do a :

    cd /etc/fetchmail/cert
    vi your.server.com.pem

    and hit ESC I (vi insert command) right click with my mouse to paste and then ESC :wq (vi write & quit command)

    Now all you need is the CA Cert. Have a look in the output of the openssl command and look for issuer. I had to download it form their site. If it was a legitimate issuer you might not need to do this part.

    Now you need to do a

    cd /etc/fetchmail/
    c_rehash cert

    to rehash the certificates.

    Linux Media Player Howto

    If you have an old PC converting it to Linux for a media player at home is great fun and I will let you know how I did mine. You can also watch Netflix or Showmax directly on your TV in Full HD.

    1. Get an old PC with preferably HDMI or DVI video out onboard.

    DVI Port looks like:

    dvi

    If its DVI you would need  a converter adapter to convert from DVI Male to HDMI Female. Look Like: (Picture is wrong its a DVI female you would need DVI male)

    DVIHDMI

    The only issue is that it will not have sound and you would require a separate audio cable for that. Maybe Stereo  to RCA.

    Look like:

    sttorca

    Now all you need is to download a Linux CD try Mint from Linux Mint.

    For ShowMax to work you would need to download and install Google Chrome. Not Chromium and not Firefox.  And you should download the Latest Ubuntu flavor  from : Chrome

    Now for your own Media MP3’s and MP4’s you have I suggest following the Kodi TV Addons instructions.

    Enjoy!!!!